By Charles DeLisi (auth.)
1. 1 association of the Immune method some of the most vital survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their skill to acknowledge and reply to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they're conti- ously uncovered. the gathering of host cells and molecules all in favour of this popularity 12 reaction functionality constitutes its immune approach. In guy, it contains approximately 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic improvement is c- strained through the requirement that it's able to responding to a nearly unlimited number of molecular configurations on international ingredients, whereas concurrently final inert to these on self elements. It has therefore developed to discriminate, with beautiful precision, among molecular styles. The overseas elements which result in a reaction, known as antigens, are usually huge molecules corresponding to proteins and polysaccharides. The parts of those with which immunoglobulins have interaction are referred to as epitopes or determinants. a customary protein epitope may possibly encompass a configuration shaped by way of the spatial preparations of 4 or 5 amino acids and feature an ordinary linear measurement of approximately 20 A.
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Additional info for Antigen Antibody Interactions
Also shown on the same plot is a theoretical curve calculated numerically and chosen to fit the data at large radii. The best fit was obtained for D2 :::; 4 x 10- 8 cm 2/ sec. For comparison the diffusion coefficient of IgM in water is 1. 7 x 10- 7 cm 2 /sec. It is apparent that, although the points appear to lie on a straight line at large r p , deviation of theory from experiment becomes dramatic as plaque size decreases. This divergence may be understood in terms of diffusion coefficient heterogeneity.
Since antibodies with Kl Po ~ 1 have D2~ DO' whereas those with Kl PO> 1 have O 2 < DO' the rate of antibody diffusion is affinity-dependent. Consequently, one would expect that the radii 60 of large plaques will be determined by relatively low affinity antibodies, since these diffuse most readily. This would tend to be true particularly at high antiserum concentrations. -3 ... 0. s -6 - t:! 1 As the concentration is made more dilute, plaques will, of course, become smaller since there will be less antibody reaching a given distance in a fixed amount of time.
6 sec . 5xl0. 49 were obtained. There are a number of caveats which should accompany the acceptance of these results. 49 are consistent with the heterogeneity of the antibody population. Short of a complete analysis, which will not be undertaken here, a definitive statement cannot be made. However, it appears possible that the rate constants are representative of a relatively homogeneous subset of antibodies centered on the population mode. This can be understood by considering the neutralization process.