An Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science - download pdf or read online

By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Naval Studies Board, Committee for an Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology

Committee for an review of Precision Time and Time period technology and expertise, nationwide examine Council, department on Engineering and actual Sciences, Naval reports Board

Knowledge of time is vital to specific wisdom of position, and consequently the army, with its have to navigate at the excessive seas, has traditionally performed a major function within the improvement and alertness of complicated time recognition and dissemination applied sciences. Discoveries coming from simple learn funded by means of the place of work of Naval learn (ONR) lie on the center of contemporary optimum functionality atomic clocks, Naval learn Laboratory (NRL) services performed a task in constructing the space-qualified atomic clocks that let the worldwide Positioning process (GPS), and the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) keeps and disseminates the traditional of time for all the division of safeguard (DOD). The army has made significant investments in so much elements of precision time and time period (PTTI) technology and know-how, even if particular PTTI-related study has additionally been funded by means of the protection complex learn initiatives organisation (DARPA) and non-DOD firms akin to the nationwide technology origin (NSF), the nationwide Aeronautics and house management (NASA), and the dept of trade. military investment, mostly via ONR, has a heritage of being an early enabler of key new advancements. sensible investment judgements by way of the Navy-particularly by means of ONR software officers-have underpinned many of the significant advances in PTTI technology and expertise (S&T) within the final 50 years.

PTTI is necessary to trendy naval wishes, and certainly to the entire armed providers, to be used in either navigation and communications. special time synchronization is required to successfully make certain the beginning of a code series in safe communications, to accomplish navigation, and to find the placement of sign emitters. specific frequency keep an eye on is needed in communications for spectrum usage and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum innovations. there are lots of examples of crucial army operations that depend upon PTTI and will reap the benefits of advancements in PTTI know-how. those comprise:

-GPS clocks and independent operations,

-Weapon process 4-dimensional coordination,

-GPS antijamming,

-Network-centric conflict, and

-Secure army communications.

This record summarizes that discounts within the measurement, weight, and tool requisites and raises within the ruggedness of PTTI units with no sacrificing functionality might placed extra exact and specified timekeeping within the palms of the warrior, bettering services in all the above operations.

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The design and manufacture of atomic frequency standards (clocks) and other precision frequency standards, including quartz oscillators, must be addressed using a systems approach. ). ) must also be taken into consideration, and, for practical devices, their cost, size, and power consumption. Nearly every factor has a potential impact on frequency when designing a product that has a stability or accuracy at levels approaching 1 × 10–15 or beyond—relativistic effects become everyday realities, and an act as simple as soldering the lead of a transistor to a circuit board generates a change in the magnetic field that affects the atomic transition frequency, for example.

Even the coatings currently used in hydrogen masers have not been optimized. A research program in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), for example, would be extremely useful for investigating ways of reducing container wall collision interactions. Reducing collisions could lead to smaller device cavities, higher-performance hydrogen masers, and higher-performance alkali-metalbased clocks and contribute to the realization of a chip-scale atomic clock. OTHER AREAS Resonator Theory, Modeling, and Computer-Aided Design of Resonators and Oscillators The theory of resonators is highly complex.

The design and manufacture of atomic frequency standards (clocks) and other precision frequency standards, including quartz oscillators, must be addressed using a systems approach. ). ) must also be taken into consideration, and, for practical devices, their cost, size, and power consumption. Nearly every factor has a potential impact on frequency when designing a product that has a stability or accuracy at levels approaching 1 × 10–15 or beyond—relativistic effects become everyday realities, and an act as simple as soldering the lead of a transistor to a circuit board generates a change in the magnetic field that affects the atomic transition frequency, for example.

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