Download e-book for kindle: Advances in Insect Physiology by Stephen J. Simpson and Jeacuterocircme Casas (Eds.)

By Stephen J. Simpson and Jeacuterocircme Casas (Eds.)

This newest quantity during this sequence comprises articles at the body structure of human and animal sickness vectors.

* Contributions from the prime researchers in entomology * Discusses the physiological range in bugs * comprises in-depth stories with precious details for various entomology disciplines

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Indeed, the insects are generally considered as the experimental unit, despite the fact that the question concerns human subjects. , 2000). However, despite these limitations, these studies have introduced the idea that differential repulsion rather than attractiveness may underlie the differences observed. Recently, Logan et al. (2008) 42 CLAUDIO R. LAZZARI identified 33 physiological active people from a group of volunteers exhibiting variable degrees of attractiveness to A. aegypti. Chemical analyses, combined with electrophysiological and behavioural tests, revealed allomonal effects of some volatile compounds.

In the first case, called ‘‘kinesis,’’ the intensity of the stimulus (and not the direction that it comes from) modulates either locomotion speed (orthokinesis) or the turning tendency of the animal (klinokinesis). In the second case, the animal extracts directional information from the signal (taxis). The direction of the source may be evaluated by successive comparisons of stimulation received during a programmed pattern of alternate left and right movements (klinotaxis) or by the simultaneous comparison of bilateral inputs (tropotaxis) or ORIENTATION TOWARDS HOSTS IN HAEMATOPHAGOUS INSECTS 25 of receptive units of a single organ (telotaxis); in cases involving receptive units of a single organ, each component of a bilateral pair of sensory organs (eyes, antennae) provides enough information to determine the direction of the source.

The differences in host attractiveness have been related to age, sex, pregnancy, hygiene, blood group, physiological state and others. However, the major factors and mechanisms involved remain unclear: predictions have not been tested and experimental studies have mostly been based on small numbers of human subjects. Indeed, the insects are generally considered as the experimental unit, despite the fact that the question concerns human subjects. , 2000). However, despite these limitations, these studies have introduced the idea that differential repulsion rather than attractiveness may underlie the differences observed.

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