Download e-book for iPad: A History of Western Philosophy: Hobbes to Hume by W. T. Jones, Robert J. Fogelin

By W. T. Jones, Robert J. Fogelin

A background OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY examines the character of philosophical company and philosophy's function in Western tradition. Jones and Fogelin weave key passages from vintage philosophy works into their reviews and criticisms, giving A historical past OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY the mixed benefits of a resource publication and textbook. The textual content concentrates on significant figures in every one ancient interval, combining exposition with direct quotations from the philosophers themselves. The textual content areas philosophers in applicable cultural context and indicates how their theories replicate the worries in their occasions.

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The answer to this question lies in the fact that manufacturing was in the hands of guilds whose primary concern was for the well-being of the master craftsmen who collectively formed the guild. Difficulties in the way of transport and the lack of money—not to mention the whole spirit of the age—discouraged any attempt to expand on a large scale beyond local areas. Hence the attention of the guilds was focused on dividing a known, local market, and individual initiative and enterprise were frowned on.

Thus, then, it is plain that the authority of the temporal monarch descends upon him without any mean from the fountain of universal authority. Which fountain, one in the citadel of its simplicity, flows into manifold channels out of the abundance of its excellence/ Dante's reasoning in this passage is still thoroughly medieval; His argument works backward from divine ends to means. Nor is his conclusion as "modem" as some have held it to be. It is a mistake, for instance, to hail Dante as the first internationalist when he had hardly the faintest conception of nationality.

This, in turn, requires a single legal authority, a final court of appeal to resolve conflicts in the interpretation of the laws. In other words, efficient administration demands that the source of law be the sovereign's will, backed by force. Despite this emphasis on the sovereign's power as the source of law, Bodin never altogether forgot the medieval thesis that God is the ultimate source of law. " Taken by itself, the assertion that the sovereign is the source of law seems to imply the "positivistic" (or "realistic")12 corollary that whatever is decreed by the person (or persons) in authority is ipso facto law.

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